“What drives me personally crazy about conspiracy theories is that people tend to have theories that require the government to be one-minded, singularly-minded, and perfectly efficient. And anybody who’s been in the military or worked with CIA, DEA, U.S. Customs, etc., we always used to consider it a minor miracle when a plane would land and not fall apart. So many things had to go right for any particular thing to happen. And so it just seems silly as someone who has personal experience in some of these things for people to believe there’s this grandiose, singular force that’s pulling all these levers of power to make things happen.”-Dru Johnson
For many career & technical educators teaching is a second or third career after they acquire valuable experience in their industry.
Career & technical educators instruct students in various technical and career related subjects, such as information technology, healthcare, business, culinary arts, diesel technology, and many more. We are currently experiencing a high demand for CTE teachers. Do you think teaching CTE might be right for you?
Educators teach the academic, technical, and workplace readiness skills that prepare students to enter an occupation or continue their education. The classroom experience is hands on, and all programs are directly connected to an advisory committee made up of industry representatives. There are opportunities at both postsecondary and secondary institutions. Although teachers can pursue the traditional certification process, there is a separate certification process for those coming out of industry.
A CTE educator coming from industry typically needs:
- A minimum of a high school diploma or equivalent
- 6 years recent, gainful experience in the industry related to the field you want to teach in (12,000 industry hours)
If you have a Bachelor’s degree or industry certification in a field closely related to the area that you wish to teach in, you may only need two (2) years recent gainful experience in the same industry (4,000 hours). You have an additional three years beyond initial certification to successfully complete four teaching-oriented courses to help you in your new instructional role. A teacher coming from the traditional certification process needs: A teaching degree from an approved institution in a CTE field. (Institutional recommendation from an approved university.)
Cloaked in the regalia of Boise State University, on a stage surrounded by colleagues, peers, Idaho leaders, friends and family, Dr. Marlene Tromp formally accepted her role as the seventh president of Boise State University on Oct. 3 in the Velma V. Morrison Center for the Performing Arts.
Dr. Tromp “challenges others to push the limits of what they can become and what they can contribute,” Idaho Gov. Brad Little said, adding that “Boise State offers the next generation of Idahoans opportunities to stay right here in Idaho to work, raise families and enjoy the blessing of life.
“Marlene, I am confident in you. We are all proud of you. And we are excited for what you will accomplish for Idaho during your tenure as president.”
In a moving speech, Dr. Tromp paid tribute to the history of Boise State and paralleled the university’s remarkable trajectory with her own “unlikely story” of growing up in rural Wyoming to become a leader in academia. Prior to joining Boise State, Dr. Tromp was campus provost and executive vice chancellor for two years at the University of California at Santa Cruz, one of the top-ranked public universities in the country, and the dean of Arizona State University’s New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, as well as the vice provost of the university’s West Campus.
“Only about 13 percent of the population of Sweetwater County attains a bachelor’s degree. That’s less than half the national average,” said Dr. Tromp, a first-generation college student turned university president.
Similarly, when the Episcopal Church formed Boise Junior College in 1932, Dr. Tromp noted that no one could have predicted its meteoric rise from a junior college with only 70 students to the largest university in the state of Idaho — a Carnegie-designated research institution with nearly 28,000 students, more than 100 graduate degree programs, an iconic Blue Turf and a national reputation as a hub of innovative thinking and doing.
Dr. Tromp was convinced that no other academic institution in the nation could boast the same successes in such a short period of time. Still, she made some calls to be sure. She contacted both the Community College Research Center at Columbia University and the American Association of Community Colleges.
“I asked them, ‘Is there a junior college that has had this kind of trajectory? They’ve been researching that question for weeks because they can’t find another one,’” she said.
“Through this remarkable place, I want to make stories like mine less rare,” she continued. “I want to find people in our cities and small towns, rural areas, I want us to locate those people and help them achieve their dreams because I know what talent is out there, and I want to find it and change their lives so they can change the world.”
Boise State Celebrates Grand Opening of the Center for the Visual Arts
Less than two hours after the investiture ceremony, Dr. Tromp was once again making history – this time by presiding over the opening ceremony of Boise State’s new Center for the Visual Arts. The ribbon-cutting ceremony, that included former Boise State President Bob Kustra, was marked with public tours of the building and moving words by the arts faculty who now mentor and inspire students within its walls.
“Great universities make the arts central to the university’s mission and identity, and great universities invest in the arts,” said Leslie Durham, interim dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. “We see that in beautiful, powerful form through this building. As someone who studies the role of the arts in American universities, I can tell you that the commitment, the vision and the investment that we find from our leadership is rare and remarkable.”
“It is difficult for a department to sustain a cohesive idea of itself when it is spread over five buildings across campus that were adapted to its use. That is what we have been for as long as I have been associated with Boise State,” said Dan Scott, interim chair of the Department of Art, Design and Visual Studies. “Today, we are truly a department; in a building that unifies all of our undergraduate programs.”
Located on the west end of campus along Capitol Boulevard, the Center for the Visual Arts is a work of art in itself. The $48 million building brings all of the university’s visual art programs – history of art and visual culture, art metals, art education, ceramics, graphic design, illustration, photography, printmaking, sculpture, drawing and painting – together under one roof. It also features public art galleries and, soon, the World Museum, a high-tech, high-touch immersive space designed to bring virtual and experimental arts experiences to Boise State and the community.
“On great architecture, Winston Churchill said ‘We shape our buildings; thereafter, they shape us.’ And that is certainly true in the case of the future for the new Center for the Visual Arts,” said Kathleen Keys, interim director of Boise State’s School of the Arts. “As the primary home of the Department of Art, Design and Visual Studies, this spectacular building will drive visual arts research and teaching by faculty, and learning by students for many generations to come.”
From Young People’s Pavilion
Ocean’s 11 . . . with 11-year-olds, in a super stand-alone heist caper from Gordon Korman!
In Swindle, by Gordon Korman, after a mean collector named Swindle cons him out of his most valuable baseball card, Griffin Bing must put together a band of misfits to break into Swindle’s compound and recapture the card. There are many things standing in their way — a menacing guard dog, a high-tech security system, a very secret hiding place, and their inability to drive — but Griffin and his team are going to get back what’s rightfully his . . . even if hijinks ensue.
“Goofball-funny and addictive.” –Kirkus Reviews
This is Gordon Korman at his crowd-pleasing best, perfect for readers who like to hoot, howl, and heist.
“I love this book for kids to read. I love this book for me to read!” an amazon reviewer wrote.
This book conjures…
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Why Conduct Research?
Research isto prove or disprove a hypothesis or to learn new facts about something. There are many different reasons for conducting research. For example, academic research is usually conducted to prove or disprove a theory while medical research is conducted to advance knowledge of medical conditions and create treatments. Ultimately, research is conducted to gain a better understanding of something or someone or to provide a solution to a problem.
Conducting research is vital in expanding human knowledge of the world. It allows us to advance as a civilization, and discover truths about the world, so we can better understand how to interact with people and the Earth. It also allows us to improve our healthcare. Conducting research leads to medical discoveries that save lives.
Research can be of many categories, depending on what you are specifically talking about. Maybe you are an engineer who wants to synthesize a better version of materials that you would have today; more durable etc. Or you could have a degree in medicine and want to find he best cure for a disease or a genetic condition.
We surely are not so well off in anything that we can possibly live for long on earth without doing research.
Or it could also be your passion for doing anything, if you are seriously curious about the world around you and how it works or the fascination of the secrets that the universe beholds that are yet to be unraveled.
Doing research on these settings would enhance our knowledge of going to space and make mankind proud.
Its a necessity since there are a lot of things out there that need understanding and it is a basic human instinct to just know.
Why conduct research in Public Relations?
Research is an essential part of public relations management.
- Research makes communication two-way by collecting information from publics rather than one-way, which is a simple dissemination of information. Research allows us to engage in dialogue with publics, understanding their beliefs and values, and working to build understanding on their part of the internal workings and policies of the organization. Scholars find that two-way communication is generally more effective than one-way communication, especially in instances in which the organization is heavily regulated by government or confronts a turbulent environment in the form of changing industry trends or of activist groups.
- Research makes public relations activities strategic by ensuring that communication is specifically targeted to publics who want, need, or care about the information. Without conducting research, public relations is based on experience or instinct, neither of which play large roles in strategic management. This type of research prevents us from wasting money on communications that are not reaching intended publics or not doing the job that we had designed them to do.
- Research allows us to show results, to measure impact, and to refocus our efforts based on those numbers. For example, if an initiative is not working with a certain public we can show that ineffectiveness statistically, and the communication can be redesigned or eliminated. Thus, we can direct funds toward more successful elements of the public relations initiative.
Without research, public relations would not be a true management function. It would not be strategic or a part of executive strategic planning, but would regress to the days of simple press agentry, following hunches and instinct to create publicity. As a true management function, public relations uses research to identify issues and engage in problem solving, to prevent and manage crises, to make organizations responsive and responsible to their publics, to create better organizational policy, and to build and maintain long-term relationships with publics. A thorough knowledge of research methods and extensive analyses of data also allow public relations practitioners a seat in the dominant coalition and a way to illustrate the value and worth of their activities. In this manner, research is the strategic foundation of modern public relations management.
American Apparel Hurricane Sandy Marketing ‘Not A Serious Matter,’ CEO Dov Charney Says: https://www.huffpost.com/entry/american-apparel-hurricane-sandy-marketing-dov-charney_n_2056410
More in a bit …
From the textbook:
PART I CHAPTER 1 Understanding Research: An Introduction with Public Relations Implications
Why Conduct Public Relations Research? 4
What Is Research? 5
Use of Research in Public Relations 13
Best Practices in Public Relations 14
Review Questions 16
Practice Problem 16
What is research? How do public relations professionals approach research? What are the major research methodologies employed by public relations researchers? How does theory relate to practice? What are the standards for conducting public relations research? What are the ethics of conducting research? These are some of the questions examined in Part I. Chapter 1 begins our exploration of public relations research by asking the more general question “What is research?” and discusses the two major research methodologies (informal and formal) used in conducting research. The difference between theoretical research, as typified in academic research, and applied research, as typified in business practice, is examined, and the relationship between the four approaches to public relations is briefly discussed. Finally, the four major research questions asked in any research are explored.
It is great to be here! For starters, please know that I was just assigned this class in the last few days and I just received all of my course info yesterday. A full welcome announcement and email will follow, shortly. We are playing a bit of “catch-up” but there is no need to worry. I have taken over courses at the last minute before and all have gone very well. We still have 15 weeks to meet all of our learning goals and objectives.
I will have this course entirely updated by next week. In today’s class we will have an overview, get to know each other, and examine the key principles of applied research. The textbook that we will use is: Primer of Public Relations Research, Don W. Stacks, Third Edition. ISBN: 9781462522705. It is probably not in the bookstore yet. So just obtain it in the next couple of weeks and we will use other materials until then.
For a bit more about me, see: A column of mine in Idaho Press: https://www.idahopress.com/business/why-do-you-write/article_53c7fece-28a3-5fc6-ba71-3e777de28305.html
and this news update from BSU: https://www.boisestate.edu/news/2019/08/20/michael-strickland-appointed-to-the-idaho-commission-for-libraries/
I look forward to having a great semester with you in this course. See you at 3:00 today!
Comm 302 Course Description and Objectives …
This course is designed to shed light on the foundations and applications of scientific research in communication. In this class, students will learn new ways of asking and answering questions that will alter your approach to our mediated
world. In particular, this course’s objectives include: 1) understand scientific research methods and basic concepts of research evaluation; 2) learn when to use the most appropriate method to investigate a certain research question; 3) learn how to design and conduct communication research; and 4) learn how to interpret the meaning of numerical results.
Students will practice some basic statistics to learn how to interpret data tables and statistical relationships.
This course has three sections: the nature of social science research in general, quantitative methods (e.g., survey, experiment, and content analysis), and qualitative methods (e.g., observation techniques, interview). Once you learn
diverse research methods and related concepts, your critical thinking and reasoning to see communication research in terms of how it is done, how it could be done better, and how it can be done to answer specific questions will all be enhanced. Some of you may have reluctant feelings about this course because you think that this course has little to do with your career goals. However, I want to remind you that all areas (e.g., communication, journalism, public relations, management, and marketing) begin with a solid foundation in research, and all areas are consistently related to the research process.
In this activity, you will introduce yourself to the class. Please read all of the instructions below before you begin this activity.
Step 01: Spend a few minutes orienting yourself to the video tool we will be using for this activity, FlipGrid. https://info.flipgrid.com/
Step 02: If you will be using your phone for FlipGrid, download the app from the App Store. Otherwise, you may use any device to tape your introduction and view the other introductions.
Step 03: To videotape your 30-90 second intro, go here: https://flipgrid.com/76585fd6 It’s pretty self-explanatory.
There are only four rules: 1) 30-90 seconds in length; 2) tell us your name, 3) tell us a phrase by which you self-identify. For example, African American male father; Romanian Jew; Woman and mountain climber; 4) tell us something about where and how you grew up.
Step 05: Don’t worry if you mess up. We all will! It’s part of the fun!
If it asks you for a flipcode, ours is flipgrid.com/strickland4825
Video Assignment: Summarize a Concept …
Read the abstract, introduction, and part one of Beginners’ Guide for Applied Research Process: What Is It, and Why and How to Do It? by Mahabat Baimyrzaeva. A pdf is found in your course materials. Here is a link to the pdf:
Pick one of the four subheadings in part one, for example: 1.1 WHAT IS APPLIED RESEARCH? … or 1.3 HOW IS APPLIED RESEARCH DIFFERENT FROM BASIC RESEARCH?
Create a 60 to 120 second video that summarizes the concept you chose.
Here is the fligrid link for this assignment: https://flipgrid.com/db9ef592
REMINDER: There will be some kind of assessment for points in every class. Most are low stakes, such as 10 point quizzes. These can take any for: response paragraphs, short answer, quizzes, face-to-face question and answer, etc. They will always be based on readings and classwork.
Read the abstract, introduction, and part one of Beginners’ Guide for Applied Research Process: What Is It, and Why and How to Do It? by Mahabat Baimyrzaeva.
Introduction to Social Science Research
Read Beginners’ Guide for Applied Research Process sections two and three.
Read Beginners’ Guide for Applied Research Process sections four and five.
Library Research (Class meetings at BSU Library)
Introduction to Quantitative Research
Quantitative Communication Research:
How to Write Quantitative Research Paper ∙ Questions/Hypothesis
Quantitative Research: Variable Measurement
Research Proposal & Presentation
Quantitative Research: Populations, Samples, and Sample Size
Quantitative Research: Experiment, Survey, and Content Analysis
Descriptive Statistics/Significance Levels/ Testing Hypotheses
Quantitative Research: Inferential Statistics (Testing for differences)
Week 15: Group Presentations
Group Presentations – Group A
Group Presentations – Group B
Group Presentations – Group C
Week 16: Group Presentations
Group Presentations – Group D
Group Presentations – Group E
Group Presentations – Group F
Please check the Syllabus and Schedule tab for the tentative schedule. Due to our late start, this schedule is perhaps a bit more tentative, subject to change, than would ordinarily be the case. But once again, nothing to fear. The schedule gives a clear overview of tasks, topics, and activities that we will engage in this semester.
I will be posting the syllabus shortly.
We will begin working in the textbook — Stacks – D.W. (2016) Primer of Public Relations Research, Third Edition. ISBN: The Guilford Press; Third edition 9781462522705 – during week four. I will update the schedule accordingly and keep you posted. Until then, come to class and watch announcements for specific readings.
The Idaho State Board of Education has named Dr. Marlene Tromp the seventh president of Boise State University.
Tromp is a first-generation college graduate from Wyoming who has been a campus leader at the public higher education system widely considered the best in the country, as well as the public university widely considered the most innovative in the country. She officially begins at Boise State on July 1.
“It will be an exciting new chapter for me to come to Boise State. I will be proud to lead the dedicated faculty and staff as they serve the students and Idaho, and to advance the transformative work of the institution,” Tromp said. “A pioneering university that has already made phenomenal advances, Boise State will have an extraordinary impact on our rapidly growing city and state. The future holds great promise for Boise State, its affiliates and the community it serves.”
“It was clear in surveys after the candidates visited Boise State last month that Dr. Tromp was the campus community’s top pick. The board shares their enthusiasm about Boise State’s next president.”
– Dr. Linda Clark, Idaho State Board member
Since 2017, Tromp has been the campus provost and executive vice chancellor at the University of California at Santa Cruz, ranked by U.S. News and World Report as the 26th best public university in the country. She is the chief academic and administrative officer for the campus, which serves more than 19,000 students and has received $680 million in research grants and contracts over the past five years.
“Dr. Tromp has held leadership roles at two of the West’s top universities and now she will become president of a third one,” said Dr. Linda Clark, Idaho State Board member and Boise State screening committee chair. “Boise State’s momentum has been building for years, and Dr. Tromp is the right person to continue that momentum and to build on it moving forward.”
Before joining the University of California system – broadly recognized as the premier public university system in the country – Tromp was the dean of Arizona State University’s New Interdisciplinary College of Arts and Sciences and the vice provost of the university’s West Campus. Arizona State and its leadership team have been at the forefront of expanding the notion of what a public university can and should be, consistently being ranked as the No. 1 university for innovation by higher education leaders surveyed each year by U.S. News and World Report.
Tromp was praised at Arizona State for overseeing new academic programs, including a new interdisciplinary forensics major and a cybersecurity initiative, and for creating mentoring programs for first-generation students. She also co-chaired a university-wide task force aimed at combating sexual assault. At the University of California Santa Cruz, she launched faculty development initiatives, new support programs for staff, and led the community in the creation of a new Strategic Academic Plan.
She grew up in Green River, Wyoming, a trona mining town along Interstate 80 that saw its population jump three-fold in the 1970s when nearby mines led an economic boom. Her father worked at one of the mines. Neither of her parents were college graduates, but they supported their two daughters’ college aspirations – especially when Tromp decided she was going to become a doctor. She earned scholarships to Creighton University, nearly 800 miles away in Omaha, Nebraska, but the financial challenges remained tangible.
“My dad worked a lot of overtime, and I worked several jobs to help pay the costs of my schooling,” Tromp said.
“I understand what it’s like to be a first-generation college student.”
– Dr. Marlene Tromp
Though bound for medical school, she fell in love with Robert Browning’s poetry. Instead, she would go on to earn her bachelor’s degree in English, come home to Wyoming to complete a master’s degree and then study for her doctorate at the University of Florida. There, she wrote a dissertation on Victorian novels and the new laws being written then on domestic violence.
Her revised dissertation became the first of several books and dozens of articles exploring gender, social justice and cultural issues in 19th century life and literature – a time close enough that contemporary society can understand the people who lived it and their motivations, but far enough away to have “critical distance,” as she noted in an interview she gave during her time as president of the North American Victorian Studies Association.
“If we can look critically at something that’s happening in the 19th century, it may help us read our own cultural moment a bit better,” she said, “and that is one very important reason to study history.”
Her work on the 19th century includes books on sensation fiction, spiritualism and seances, freak shows, economics and xenophobia. She has studied the Titanic disaster and has a new book underway on Victorian murder cases, the latter inspired in part by team-teaching she did with a forensic scientist at Arizona State.
Her father, who has since passed away, was not disappointed that she didn’t become a medical doctor and was extremely proud of her career as a professor. He loved learning as much as she does and was proud of her leadership in higher education.
“Completing a degree felt to me like an incredibly magical moment,” she said. “I remember standing in the auditorium with the students I was about to graduate with, and thinking, my life has just changed. My whole world has just changed. And that felt so thrilling to me. And when he saw me walk off that stage in my academic robe and my degree in hand, it was one of the few times I saw my dad choke up.”
Her experience will translate well to Boise State, where more than a third of all students are the first in their family to attend college.
Tromp is committed to supporting students and faculty, serving and advancing the state of Idaho, and helping the university foster research excellence to increase discovery for its students and the world.
Gymnastics may be globally defined as any physical exercise on the floor or apparatus that promotes endurance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and body control, according to the Human Kinetics page.
At its best, it is body management through the use of functional movement. As such, it is different from games (which promote the mastery of objects and the accomplishment of a purpose such as overcoming an opponent) and from dance (which promotes the expression or communication of feelings, attitudes, ideas, and concepts).
Gymnastics is like many other childhood activities, however, in that it includes learning to develop locomotor and balance skills as well as body and spatial awareness, the site says.
Beyond enhancing body awareness, gymnastics is an activity involving movement in a controlled manner. It is also an enjoyable aesthetic activity that uses a variety of stimuli (apparatus, group work, and music) to promote development of the body and mind in addressing specific tasks.
Check out this routine:
So, we heard that stellar gymnastics routines were going viral…
— Boise State Gymnastics (@BroncoSportsGYM) January 16, 2019
Originally posted on IdahoEdNews.org on December 19, 2018
REXBUG — Teacher candidates at Brigham Young University-Idaho appear to be in limbo after state officials determined some of the university’s middle school endorsement coursework falls short of state requirements.
In October, a 12-member state review team evaluated BYU-Idaho’s educator preparation program. Officials examined approximately 10 percent of the university’s institutional recommendation forms from 2015 to 2018. The forms are designed to verify that candidates have met state certification requirements. A draft report resulting from the October review shows that BYU-Idaho’s reviewed institutional recommendations did not meet state rule requirements for subject-area endorsement for grades 5-9 for at least one of the following reasons:
- Insufficient minimum credit requirements.
- Insufficient content.
- A math endorsement lacking appropriate subject-area assessment and content.
- Earth and space science and natural science courses that lacked a secondary science methods requirement.
BYU-Idaho, owned by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and located some 30 miles north of Idaho Falls, in Rexburg, is a major supplier to Idaho’s teacher pipeline. The university’s teacher prep program graduated 384 students in 2017, according to the Federal Title II report numbers. By comparison, all other teacher preparation programs in Idaho saw 545 graduates that same year.
It’s unclear how the program’s shortfalls are affecting students seeking their 5-9 teaching endorsement, or what the university is doing to correct the problem. In an email obtained by Idaho Education News, BYU-Idaho Teacher Education Department Chair Karla LaOrange informed students of the state’s findings. While LaOrange assured students that “a team of faculty members, deans, and vice-presidents are working in (their) behalf,” she did not include specifics about addressing the issue, or if students will have to repeat coursework.
“Since we have been informed of this issue, BYU-Idaho has been working closely with the State to rectify the situation and allow you to obtain a teaching certificate,” LaOrange told students.
Idaho Education News requested more information from the university, including what the issue means for current students. BYU-Idaho spokesman Brett Crandall declined to comment.
The State Department of Education’s chief certification officer Lisa Colón Duram, a state observer of the October program review, stressed that the report was still in draft form, and that BYU-Idaho is within the timeframe for submitting either factual corrections or a rejoinder.
Colón Duram also acknowledged that the school’s program needs to address the problem.
“We’ve identified where the holes are,” Colón Duram said. “How they are going to fix this is up to them.”
The Idaho State Journal reports:
The two players, Nehemiah McFarlin and Atoatasi Fox, through their Orem, Utah-based attorney, Daniel Steele, filed a Civil Rights lawsuit in U.S. District Court in Utah Wednesday.
McFarlin and Fox are seeking at least $10,000 in damages, claiming they were detained, arrested and then threatened for more than 24 hours while in police custody in Utah’s Box Elder County after being accused of robbing a Malad bank in December 2016.
The article continues:
“Other than being ‘black,’ neither McFarlin nor Fox matched the description of the robbery participant,” Steele said in the suit.
The suit claims that not only were McFarlin and Fox nowhere near the Malad area when the bank was robbed, but the pair also offered alibi information, including their calls to AAA, that would demonstrate the pair could not have been involved in the robbery.
“Defendants disregarded the information and evidence that McFarlin and Fox offered, and arrested (them) without probable cause,” Steele said in the suit, adding that after the pair was incarcerated at the Box Elder County Jail in Brigham City, and “Throughout the ordeal, McFarlin and Fox were coerced, berated, threatened, and informed that they were going to prison for a very long time.”
McFarlin and Fox were denied any communication with family for several hours, according to the suit. Though McFarlin’s Camaro was seized, searched and inventoried at the scene of the pair’s arrest, no evidence of the robbery was found, further corroborating McFarlin and Fox’s information, the suit said. After spending a night in the Box Elder County Jail, McFarlin and Fox were released at approximately 6 p.m. the day after the robbery. In addition to both Oneida and Box Elder counties and their respective Sheriffs’ Offices, the suit lists 18 individual members of law enforcement in Idaho and Utah including Semrad and Oneida County Detective Patsy Sherman. “For hours, I didn’t know if they were dead or what was going on,” Nika Fox said. “I admire my son for the way he handled it. He had never been in trouble before, so I know that this was probably the most traumatic thing for him to have to endure.”
Read the full story.